While all spirits derive their alcoholic content from one form of sugar or another the class of spirits that are made from sugar directly are generally classed as Rum. In the US the regulations are very very broad in defining what is and isn’t considered rum. According to the US Tax and Trade Bureau which sets the definitions for spirits in the US, Rum is any “Spirits distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or other sugar cane by-products at less than 95% alcohol by volume (190 proof) having the taste, aroma and characteristics generally attributed to rum and bottled at not less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof)”.
Beyond that general form there is no sub-type, category or other definition of rum in general. They do define Rum liqueurs and Flavored rums but the breakout essentially boils down to “It should be primarily rum” and “It should be flavored as listed on the bottle” so butterscotch flavored rum can’t be flavored with root beer or tuna fish.
What does that mean? Effectively since none of the terms on your bottle of rum are regulated other than the word “Rum” distillers can say whatever they want about their product and have it stick.
The following terms in rum are unregulated: